Institute of Physics of Materials AS CR, v. v. i. > Groups > Low Cycle Fatigue Group

Low Cycle Fatigue Group

HeadIng. Ivo Šulák, Ph.D.
E-mail [javascript protected email address]
Phone number+420 532 290 343

Premature failure of components and structures designed on the basis of monotonic and traditional high cycle life curves has focused the attention of design engineers and scientists to the study of low cycle fatigue of materials. Low cycle fatigue fractures are connected with the infrequent working cycles of equipment or instruments which often result from start-up and shut down operations or interruptions of their function. Important subjects represent also high temperature low cycle fatigue, thermal and thermomechanical fatigue and multiaxial elastoplastic fatigue.

The research of low cycle fatigue started in IPM under the leadership of the deceased Prof. Mirko Klesnil in the sixties when two electrohydraulic testing machines were designed and assembled in the IPM using the components produced by INOVA company. Later two elecrohydraulic computer controlled machines were purchased (see experimental facilities).

The present activities of the group concentrate to the systematic study of the fatigue behaviour of the structural and advanced materials subjected to cyclic elastoplastic loading, mostly under push-pull conditions.

The main subjects pursued:

  • cyclic plastic straining the mechanisms, sources of the cyclic stress and relation to the internal structure. Analysis of the hysteresis loop using statistical theory in terms of the internal and effective stress, the relation of the macroscopic response to the internal dislocation structure.
  • fatigue damage mechanisms - the mechanisms of cyclic slip localisation, fatigue crack nucleation
  • interaction of low cycle fatigue with creep at elevated temperatures, structural changes and damage evolution in high temperature symmetric and asymmetric loading; nickel based superalloys
  • fatigue of composite materials - damage evolution, cracking and fatigue fracture of laminate composites (GLARE, ARALL)
  • effect of the coatings on the cyclic plasticity and fatigue life of advanced materials - effect of nitride and carbon layers and of the other coating procedures on the individual stages of fatigue process and on the fatigue life.
  • effect of depressed and elevated temperatures on the early fatigue damage - study of the surface relief evolution using high resolution techniques (AFM, FESEM, EBSD, FIB) in austenitic, ferritic and austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steels
  • short crack growth kinetics in advanced steels - duplex, Eurofer, effect of mean stress
  • study of fatigue damage in TiAl intermetallics

The most important results in the last five years:

  • quantitative description of short crack growth regime and its use for the fatigue life prediction
  • experimental documentation of fatigue damage evolution in plastic strain amplitude controlled one-step and two-step loading
  • separation of the cyclic stress into internal and effective component using loop shape analysis
  • measurement of the effective stress and the distribution of the internal critical stresses in stainless austenitic, ferritic and duplex steels
  • application of the atomic force microscopy (AFM), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) to the study of surface relief evolution and fatigue crack nucleation
  • quantitative data on the extrusion and intrusion formation in stainless steel at ambient, depressed and elevated temperatures
  • theoretical description of the temperature dependence of the extrusion growth in fatigued single and polycrystals


NamePhone numbersRoomsE-mail
Ing. Alice Chlupová, Ph.D. +420 532 290 344116b [javascript protected email address]
prof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc. +420 532 290 464423 [javascript protected email address]
Ing. Ivo Kuběna, Ph.D. +420 532 290 417316 [javascript protected email address]
Ing. Jiří Man, Ph.D. +420 532 290 363110 [javascript protected email address]
doc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc. +420 532 290 415208 [javascript protected email address]
prof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c. +420 532 290 366111 [javascript protected email address]


NamePhone numbersRoomsE-mail
Robert Mádle +420 532 290 352105 [javascript protected email address]
Ing. Jiří Tobiáš +420 532 290 352105 [javascript protected email address]

Phd students

NamePhone numbersRoomsE-mail
Ing. Tomáš Babinský +420 532 290 345116 [javascript protected email address]
Ing. Ladislav Poczklán +420 532 290 345116 [javascript protected email address]
Ing. Jakub Poloprudský +420 532 290 345116 [javascript protected email address]
Ing. Tomáš Vražina +420 532 290 347114 [javascript protected email address]

Diploma students

NamePhone numbersRoomsE-mail
Bc. Jaromír Brůža +420 532 290 345116 [javascript protected email address]

Project numberNameInvestigator
23-05372S Surface and subsurface erosion due to multiple droplet impingementIng. Jiří Man, Ph.D.
23-06167S High-temperature damage mechanisms in Ni-based superalloy fabricated by laser powder bed fusionIng. Ivo Kuběna, Ph.D.
CK02000025 Advanced welded structurus for enhanced operational safety in aviationprof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
958192, H2020-NMBP-ST-IND-2020-singlestage, LC-SPIRE-08-2020 Tailoring ODS materials processing routes for additive manufacturing of high temperature devices for aggressive environments (topAM)prof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.


Project numberNameInvestigator
19-00408S Material integrity and structure at the early stages during pulsating liquid jet interactionprof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
18-03615S Description of short fatigue crack growth in large scale yielding conditionsprof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
TH02020482 Compressor wheel’s performance increase in auxiliary power units for aerospace applicationdoc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
15-08826S Damage mechanisms in multiaxial cyclic loadingprof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
15-20991S Plasma deposition, microstructural and thermo-mechanical stability of environmental barrier coatingsdoc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
13-28685P Identification of fatigue damage mechanisms in modern steels under development for fusion and nuclear reactorsIng. Ivo Kuběna, Ph.D.
13-23652S Materials for high temperature applications – hardening and damaging mechanismsprof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c.
13-32665S Fatigue damage mechanisms in ultrafine grained stainless steelsIng. Jiří Man, Ph.D.
P204/11/1453 Analysis of cyclic stress components in advanced high-temperature resistant structural materialsprof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c.
P107/11/2065 Protective diffusion coatings on cast nickel-based superalloys for high temperature applicationdoc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
P107/11/0704 Optimization of structure and properties of advanced high-temperature cast materials alloyed with carbon by complex heat treatmentprof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
P108/10/2371 Localization and irreversibility of cyclic slip in polycrystalsIng. Jiří Man, Ph.D.
106/09/1954 Role of oxide dispersion in fatigue behaviour of ODS type steelsprof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
106/08/1631 Mechanism of cyclic deformation and fatigue life of advanced multiphase materials for high-temperature applicationsIng. Martin Petrenec, Ph.D.
106/07/1507 Low cycle fatigue-creep interaction in advanced high temperature structural materialsdoc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
101/07/1500 Novel principles for life prediction in variable loading of componentsprof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c.
106/06/1096 Role of lattice defects in early stadia of fatigue damage of structural materialsIng. Jiří Man, Ph.D.
106/05/P521 Dislocation structure in cast superalloys INCONEL cyclicaly loaded at high temperaturesIng. Martin Petrenec, Ph.D.
AVOZ 2041904-I038 Fatigue behaviour of nanostructural quasicrystalline materials based on AlIng. Alice Chlupová, Ph.D.
106/03/1265 Influence of selected factors on fatigue properties of ADIdoc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
106/02/D147 Effect of cyclic loading with variable stress amplitude on fatigue behaviour of fibre-metal laminatesIng. Alice Chlupová, Ph.D.
106/02/0584 Fatigue life and residual fatigue life assessment based on the kinetics of short crack growthprof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c.
IAA2041201 Mechanisms of fatigue damage in natural compositesprof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c.
C2041104 Properties and behaviour of hybrid laminates dural-C/epoxy under cyclic loadingIng. Alice Chlupová, Ph.D.
106/01/0376 Effect of cycle asymmetry on short crack growth and fatigue life in advanced structural materialsdoc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
106/00/D055 Effect of asymmetrical cyclic loading on early damage stadia of structural materialsIng. Jiří Man, Ph.D.


MTS Acumen 12 - Electrodynamic testing system

Contact person: Ing. Ivo Šulák, Ph.D.
The MTS Acumen 12 electrodynamic testing system allows static and dynamic loading up to ± 12 kN for cyclic, tensile, bending and compression tests.

MTS 809 axial – torsional test system

Contact person: Ing. Ivo Šulák, Ph.D.
Servohydraulic MTS 809 axial – torsional test system allowing us to perform isothermal fatigue testing with independent bi-axial loading at temperatures from 24°C up to 1400°C.

MTS 810 servo-hydraulic testing machine for fatigue loading at temperature range from -196°C up to 350°C

Contact person: Ing. Ivo Šulák, Ph.D.
Testing system allowing us to perform isothermal fatigue loading at temperature 24°C or when equipped with cryostat at low temperature from -196°C or equipped with environmental chamber in temperature range from -70°C up to 350°C.

MTS 810 servo-hydraulic testing machine for fatigue loading at temperature from 24°C up to 1000°C

Contact person: Ing. Ivo Šulák, Ph.D.
Testing system allowing us to perform isothermal fatigue loading at temperatures from 24°C up to 1000°C.

MTS 880 servo-hydraulic testing machine for thermo-mechanical fatigue

Contact person: Ing. Ivo Šulák, Ph.D.
MTS 880 servo-hydraulic testing system allowing us to perform an independent mechanical and thermal cyclic loading in the temperature range from 24°C to 1200°C.

Feritscope Fischer FMP 30

Contact person: Ing. Jiří Man, Ph.D.
Feritscope Fischer FMP 30 is equipment for measurement of the ferrite Content in Steels.

Long focal microscopes

Contact person:
Questar and Navitar are long focal microscopes for in-situ observation of specimen surface during loading.


Šulák I., Hrbáček K., Obrtlík K.: High Temperature Fatigue Properties of Boron-doped Superalloy B1914. Procedia Struct. Integr. 43 (2023) 209-214

Poczklán L., Polák J., Kruml T.: Comparison of critical plane models based on multiaxial low-cycle fatigue tests of 316L steel. Int. J. Fatigue 171 (2023) 107569

Šulák I., Chlupová A., Obrtlík K.: High-Temperature Low Cycle Fatigue of Nickel-Based Superalloy IN738LC. Defect Diffus. Forum 422 (2023) 27-32

Babinský T., Šulák I., Kuběna I., Man J., Weiser A., Švábenská E., Englert L., Guth S.: Thermomechanical fatigue of additively manufactured 316L stainless steel. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 869 (2023) 144831

Polák J., Chlupová A.: Mechanisms of intergranular fatigue crack initiation in polycrystalline materials. Procedia Struct. Integr. 43 (2023) 197-202

Chlupová A., Šulák I., Kuběna I., Kruml T., Roth J., Jahns K.: Comparison of Microstructure and Properties of Nickel-Copper Alloy Prepared by Casting and Laser Powder Bed Fusion Process. Mater. Sci. Forum 1082 (2023) 171-176

Gröger R., Holzer J., Kruml T.: Twinning and antitwinning in body-centered cubic metals. Comp. Mater. Sci. 216 (2023) 111874

Klichová D., Nag A., Poloprudský J., Foldyna J., Pude F., Sitek L., Hloch S.: Utilising of water hammer effect for surface roughening of Ti6Al4V. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 126 (2023) 5633-5647

Man J., Blinn B., Šulák I., Kuběna I., Smaga M., Chlup Z., Kruml T., Beck T., Polák J.: Formation of deformation induced martensite in fatigued 316L steels manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM). Procedia Struct. Integr. 43 (2023) 203-208

Kuběna I., Fintová S., Jambor M., Šmíd M.: TKD/EBSD and TEM analysis of microstructural changes ongoing in AISI 304L steel exposed to the cyclic loading. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 872 (2023) 144943

Mikmeková Š., Man J., Ambrož O., Jozefovič P., Čermák J., Järvenpää A., Jaskari M., Materna J., Kruml T.: High-resolution characterization of deformation induced martensite in large areas of fatigued austenitic stainless steel using deep learning. Metals 13 (2023) 1039


Slávik O., Vojtek T., Poczklán L., Tinoco Navarro H., Kruml T., Hutař P., Šmíd M.: Improved description of low-cycle fatigue behaviour of 316L steel under axial, torsional and combined loading using plastic J-integral. Theor. Appl. Fract. Mech. 118 (2022) 103212

Chlupová A., Šulák I., Babinský T., Polák J.: Intergranular fatigue crack initiation in polycrystalline copper. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 848 (2022) 143357

Šulák I., Obrtlík K., Čelko L.: Influence of new thermal and environmental barrier coating on the thermomechanical fatigue behaviour of nickel-based superalloy MAR-M247. Ninth International Conference on Low Cycle Fatigue 1 (2022) 139-144

Procházková E., Filo J., Mužíková Čechová L., Dračínský M., Císařová I., Janeba Z., Kawamura I., Naito A., Kuběna I., Nádaždy P., Šiffalovič P., Cigáň M.: Photoswitching of 5-phenylazopyrimidines in crystalline powders and thin films. Dyes and Pigments 199 (2022) 110066

Šulák I., Babinský T., Chlupová A., Milovanović A., Náhlík L.: Effect of building direction and heat treatment on mechanical properties of Inconel 939 prepared by additive manufacturing. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 36 (2022) 1-6

Man J., Šulák I., Chlupová A., Kuběna I., Douša L., Polák J.: Cyclic plasticity and LCF behavior of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM). Ninth International Conference on Low Cycle Fatigue 1 (2022) 241-246

Šulák I., Hrbáček K., Obrtlík K.: The Effect of Temperature and Phase Shift on the Thermomechanical Fatigue of Nickel-Based Superalloy. Metals 993 (2022) 12060993

Šulák I., Obrtlík K., Babinský T., Guth S.: The low cycle fatigue behaviour of MAR-M247 superalloy under different strain rates and cycle shapes at 750 °C. Int. J. Fatigue 164 (2022) 107133

Šiška F., Hadraba H., Stratil L., Fintová S., Kuběna I.: Effects of grains´ morphology on strengthening mechanisms in ODM401 14Cr ODS steel at high temperatures. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 852 (2022) 143663

Mazánová V., Heczko M., Polák J.: On the mechanism of fatigue crack initiation in high-angle grain boundaries. Int. J. Fatigue 158 (2022) 106721

Marrow T., Šulák I., Shiuan-Li B., Vukšić M., Williamson M., Armstrong D.: High temperature spherical nano-indentation of graphite crystals. Carbon 191 (2022) 236-242

Guth S., Babinský T., Lang K., Hrbáček K., Šulák I.: Influence of strain-rate and cycle form on the low cycle fatigue behaviour of nickel-base superalloy MAR-M247 at high temperature. Ninth International Conference on Low Cycle Fatigue 1 (2022) 3-8

Poloprudský J., Nag A., Kruml T., Hloch S.: Effects of liquid droplet volume and impact frequency on the integrity of Al alloy AW2014 exposed to subsonic speeds of pulsating water jets. Wear 488-489 (2022) 204136

Buchtík M., Hasoňová M., Horník P., Březina M., Doskočil L., Másilko J., Mrňa L., Filipenský J., Kuběna I., Fintová S., Wasserbauer J., Doležal P.: Influence of laser remelting on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of HVOF-sprayed Fe-based coatings on magnesium alloy. Mater. Character. 194 (2022) 112343

Hadraba H., Chlup Z., Čížek J., Kuběna I.: 9Cr-1W steel strengthened by AlN and BN dispersion. J. Mater. Sci. 57 (2022) 12572-12584


Šmíd M., Kuběna I., Jambor M., Fintová S.: Effect of solution annealing on low cycle fatigue of 304L stainless steel. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 824 (2021) 141807

Tinoco Navarro H., Holzer J., Pikálek T., Sobota J., Fořt T., Matějka M., Kruml T., Hutař P.: Determination of the yield stress in Al thin film by applying bulge test. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1777 (2021) 012030

Heczko M., George E., Mazánová V., Ghazisaeidi M., Slone C., Polák J., Shih M., Mills M.: Role of deformation twinning in fatigue of CrCoNi medium-entropy alloy at room temperature. Scr. Mater. 202 (2021) 113985

Pirzada T., Liu D., Ell J., Barnard H., Šulák I., Galano M., Marrow T., Ritchie R.: In situ observation of the deformation and fracture of an alumina-alumina ceramic-matrix composite at elevated temperature using x-ray computed tomography. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 41 (2021) 4217-4230

Fintová S., Kuběna I., Chlupová A., Jambor M., Šulák I., Chlup Z., Polák J.: Frequency-dependent fatigue damage in polycrystalline copper analyzed by FIB tomography. Acta Mater. 211 (2021) 116859

Švábenská E., Chlupová A., Foldyna J., Schneeweiss O.: Evolution of Microstructure of Silicon Steel After Pulsating Water Jet Treatment. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering Advances (2021) 219-228

Poloprudský J., Chlupová A., Šulák I., Kruml T., Hloch S.: Surface and Subsurface Analysis of Stainless Steel and Titanium Alloys Exposed to Ultrasonic Pulsating Water Jet. Materials 14 (2021) 5212

Čuha D., Nag A., Chlupová A., Hloch S.: Erosion of Titanium and Aluminium Alloys Using Pulsating Water Jet: Effect of Standoff Distance. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering (2021) 56-66

Holzer J., Chlup Z., Kruml T., Gröger R.: Plastic deformation of magnetically isotropic Cr single crystals compressed at 77 K. Int. J. Plast. 138 (2021) 102938

Fintová S., Kuběna I., Jarý M., Luptáková N., Stratil L., Šiška F., Svoboda J.: Creep properties of heat-treated Fe-Al-O ODS alloy. Kovové materiály 59 (2021) 39-50

Bertolla L., Šulák I., Buršík J., Dlouhý I., Smilek J., Mácová P., Holas J.: Exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets in low-modulus concentrated alkali silicate pastes. Mater. Lett. 292 (2021) 129551

Mikmeková Š., Man J., Konvalina I.: Microstructural characterization of 316L stainless steel fabricated by selective laser melting by advanced electron microscopy techniques. Microscopy and Microanalysis 27(S1) (2021) 2666-2668

Babinský T., Kuběna I., Šulák I., Kruml T., Tobiáš J., Polák J.: Surface relief evolution and fatigue crack initiation in René 41 superalloy cycled at room temperature. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 819 (2021) 141520

Chlupová A., Šulák I., Kunčická L., Kocich R., Svoboda J.: Microstructural aspects of new grade ODS alloy consolidated by rotary swaging. Mater. Character. 181 (2021) 111477

Poloprudský J., Chlupová A., Kruml T., Hloch S., Hlaváček P., Foldyna J.: Effect of Standoff Distance on the Erosion of Various Materials. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering Advances (2021) 164-171

Poloprudský J., Chlupová A., Kruml T., Hloch S.: Identification of Local Microplasticity on Ti6Al4V After Impingement of Periodically Acting Water Clusters. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering Advances (2021) 63-74

Říha Z., Zeleňák M., Kruml T., Poloprudský J.: Comparison of the disintegration abilities of modulated and continuous water jets. Wear 478-479 (2021) 203891

Tinoco Navarro H., Hutař P., Kruml T., Holzer J.: Modeling of elastoplastic behavior of freestanding square thin films under bulge testing. Acta Mech. 232 (2021) 2715-2731

Vinogradov A., Kruml T., Heczko M., Mazánová V., Linderov M.: Kinetics of cyclically-induced mechanical twinning in gamma-TiAl unveiled by a combination of acoustic emission, neutron diffraction and electron microscopy. Acta Mater. 212 (2021) 116921

Trávníček L., Kuběna I., Mazánová V., Vojtek T., Polák J., Hutař P., Šmíd M.: Advantageous Description of Short Fatigue Crack Growth Rates in Austenitic Stainless Steels with Distinct Properties. Metals 11 (2021) 475

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