Institute of Physics of Materials AS CR, v. v. i. > Groups > Low Cycle Fatigue Group

Low Cycle Fatigue Group

Headprof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
E-mail [javascript protected email address]
Phone number+420 532 290 379

Premature failure of components and structures designed on the basis of monotonic and traditional high cycle life curves has focused the attention of design engineers and scientists to the study of low cycle fatigue of materials. Low cycle fatigue fractures are connected with the infrequent working cycles of equipment or instruments which often result from start-up and shut down operations or interruptions of their function. Important subjects represent also high temperature low cycle fatigue, thermal and thermomechanical fatigue and multiaxial elastoplastic fatigue.

The research of low cycle fatigue started in IPM under the leadership of the deceased Prof. Mirko Klesnil in the sixties when two electrohydraulic testing machines were designed and assembled in the IPM using the components produced by INOVA company. Later two elecrohydraulic computer controlled machines were purchased (see experimental facilities).

The present activities of the group concentrate to the systematic study of the fatigue behaviour of the structural and advanced materials subjected to cyclic elastoplastic loading, mostly under push-pull conditions.

The main subjects pursued:

  • cyclic plastic straining the mechanisms, sources of the cyclic stress and relation to the internal structure. Analysis of the hysteresis loop using statistical theory in terms of the internal and effective stress, the relation of the macroscopic response to the internal dislocation structure.
  • fatigue damage mechanisms - the mechanisms of cyclic slip localisation, fatigue crack nucleation
  • interaction of low cycle fatigue with creep at elevated temperatures, structural changes and damage evolution in high temperature symmetric and asymmetric loading; nickel based superalloys
  • fatigue of composite materials - damage evolution, cracking and fatigue fracture of laminate composites (GLARE, ARALL)
  • effect of the coatings on the cyclic plasticity and fatigue life of advanced materials - effect of nitride and carbon layers and of the other coating procedures on the individual stages of fatigue process and on the fatigue life.
  • effect of depressed and elevated temperatures on the early fatigue damage - study of the surface relief evolution using high resolution techniques (AFM, FESEM, EBSD, FIB) in austenitic, ferritic and austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steels
  • short crack growth kinetics in advanced steels - duplex, Eurofer, effect of mean stress
  • study of fatigue damage in TiAl intermetallics

The most important results in the last five years:

  • quantitative description of short crack growth regime and its use for the fatigue life prediction
  • experimental documentation of fatigue damage evolution in plastic strain amplitude controlled one-step and two-step loading
  • separation of the cyclic stress into internal and effective component using loop shape analysis
  • measurement of the effective stress and the distribution of the internal critical stresses in stainless austenitic, ferritic and duplex steels
  • application of the atomic force microscopy (AFM), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) to the study of surface relief evolution and fatigue crack nucleation
  • quantitative data on the extrusion and intrusion formation in stainless steel at ambient, depressed and elevated temperatures
  • theoretical description of the temperature dependence of the extrusion growth in fatigued single and polycrystals


NamePhone numbersRoomsE-mail
Mgr. Milan Heczko, Ph.D. +420 532 290 343 116a
Ing. Alice Chlupová, Ph.D. +420 532 290 344 116b
Ing. Ivo Kuběna, Ph.D. +420 532 290 343 116a
Ing. Jiří Man, Ph.D. +420 532 290 363 110
doc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc. +420 532 290 415 208
prof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c. +420 532 290 366 111
Ing. Ivo Šulák, Ph.D. +420 532 290 343 116a


NamePhone numbersRoomsE-mail
Mgr. Roman Chrastil, DiS. +420 532 290 341 125
Robert Mádle +420 532 290 352 105
Ing. Jiří Tobiáš +420 532 290 352 105
Ing. Jan Vysloužil, CSc. +420 532 290 341 125

Phd students

NamePhone numbersRoomsE-mail
Ing. Tomáš Babinský +420 532 290 345 116
Ing. Ladislav Poczklán +420 532 290 345 116
Ing. Jakub Poloprudský +420 532 290 344 116b

Project numberNameInvestigator
19-00408S Material integrity and structure at the early stages during pulsating liquid jet interaction prof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
18-03615S Description of short fatigue crack growth in large scale yielding conditions prof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.


Project numberNameInvestigator
TH02020482 Compressor wheel’s performance increase in auxiliary power units for aerospace application doc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
15-08826S Damage mechanisms in multiaxial cyclic loading prof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
15-20991S Plasma deposition, microstructural and thermo-mechanical stability of environmental barrier coatings doc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
13-28685P Identification of fatigue damage mechanisms in modern steels under development for fusion and nuclear reactors Ing. Ivo Kuběna, Ph.D.
13-23652S Materials for high temperature applications – hardening and damaging mechanisms prof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c.
13-32665S Fatigue damage mechanisms in ultrafine grained stainless steels Ing. Jiří Man, Ph.D.
P204/11/1453 Analysis of cyclic stress components in advanced high-temperature resistant structural materials prof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c.
P107/11/2065 Protective diffusion coatings on cast nickel-based superalloys for high temperature application doc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
P107/11/0704 Optimization of structure and properties of advanced high-temperature cast materials alloyed with carbon by complex heat treatment prof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
P108/10/2371 Localization and irreversibility of cyclic slip in polycrystals Ing. Jiří Man, Ph.D.
106/09/1954 Role of oxide dispersion in fatigue behaviour of ODS type steels prof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
106/08/1631 Mechanism of cyclic deformation and fatigue life of advanced multiphase materials for high-temperature applications Ing. Martin Petrenec, Ph.D.
106/07/1507 Low cycle fatigue-creep interaction in advanced high temperature structural materials doc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
101/07/1500 Novel principles for life prediction in variable loading of components prof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c.
106/06/1096 Role of lattice defects in early stadia of fatigue damage of structural materials Ing. Jiří Man, Ph.D.
106/05/P521 Dislocation structure in cast superalloys INCONEL cyclicaly loaded at high temperatures Ing. Martin Petrenec, Ph.D.
AVOZ 2041904-I038 Fatigue behaviour of nanostructural quasicrystalline materials based on Al Ing. Alice Chlupová, Ph.D.
106/03/1265 Influence of selected factors on fatigue properties of ADI doc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
106/02/D147 Effect of cyclic loading with variable stress amplitude on fatigue behaviour of fibre-metal laminates Ing. Alice Chlupová, Ph.D.
106/02/0584 Fatigue life and residual fatigue life assessment based on the kinetics of short crack growth prof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c.
IAA2041201 Mechanisms of fatigue damage in natural composites prof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c.
C2041104 Properties and behaviour of hybrid laminates dural-C/epoxy under cyclic loading Ing. Alice Chlupová, Ph.D.
106/01/0376 Effect of cycle asymmetry on short crack growth and fatigue life in advanced structural materials doc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
106/00/D055 Effect of asymmetrical cyclic loading on early damage stadia of structural materials Ing. Jiří Man, Ph.D.


MTS 809 axial – torsional test system

Contact person: Ing. Ivo Šulák, Ph.D.
Servohydraulic MTS 809 axial – torsional test system allowing us to perform isothermal fatigue testing with independent bi-axial loading at temperatures from 24°C up to 1400°C.

MTS 810 servo-hydraulic testing machine for fatigue loading at temperature range from -196°C up to 350°C

Contact person: Ing. Ivo Šulák, Ph.D.
Testing system allowing us to perform isothermal fatigue loading at temperature 24°C or when equipped with cryostat at low temperature from -196°C or equipped with environmental chamber in temperature range from -70°C up to 350°C.

MTS 810 servo-hydraulic testing machine for fatigue loading at temperature from 24°C up to 1000°C

Contact person: Ing. Ivo Šulák, Ph.D.
Testing system allowing us to perform isothermal fatigue loading at temperatures from 24°C up to 1000°C.

MTS 880 servo-hydraulic testing machine for thermo-mechanical fatigue

Contact person: Ing. Ivo Šulák, Ph.D.
MTS 880 servo-hydraulic testing system allowing us to perform an independent mechanical and thermal cyclic loading in the temperature range from 24°C to 1200°C.

Feritscope Fischer FMP 30

Contact person: Ing. Jiří Man, Ph.D.
Feritscope Fischer FMP 30 is equipment for measurement of the ferrite Content in Steels.

Long focal microscopes

Contact person:
Questar and Navitar are long focal microscopes for in-situ observation of specimen surface during loading.


Švábenská E., Chlupová A., Foldyna J., Schneeweiss O.: Evolution of Microstructure of Silicon Steel After Pulsating Water Jet Treatment. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering Advances (2021) 219-228

Poloprudský J., Chlupová A., Kruml T., Hloch S., Hlaváček P., Foldyna J.: Effect of Standoff Distance on the Erosion of Various Materials. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering Advances (2021) 164-171

Čuha D., Nag A., Chlupová A., Hloch S.: Erosion of Titanium and Aluminium Alloys Using Pulsating Water Jet: Effect of Standoff Distance. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering Advances (2021) 56-66


Fintová S., Kuběna I., Trško L., Horník V., Kunz L.: Fatigue behavior of AW7075 aluminum alloy in ultra-high cycle fatigue region. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 774 (2020) 138922

Tinoco Navarro H., Hutař P., Merle B., Göken M., Kruml T.: Fracture Toughness Evaluation of a Cracked Au Thin Film by Applying a Finite Element Analysis and Bulge Test. Key Eng. Mater. 827 (2020) 196-202

Šulák I., Obrtlík K.: AFM, SEM AND TEM study of damage mechanisms in cyclically strained mar-M247 at room temperature and high temperatures. Theor. Appl. Fract. Mech. 108 (2020) 102606

Chlupová A., Poczklán L., Man J., Mazánová V., Heczko M., Kruml T.: Character of Fatigue Damage under Axial, Torsional and Biaxial Loading of 316L Stainless Steel. Defect Diffus. Forum 405 (2020) 264-270

Švábenská E., Pizúrová N., Roupcová P., Chlupová A., Brajer J., Foldyna J., Schneeweiss O.: Effect of shock wave on microstructure of silicon steel. Surfaces and Interfaces 20 (2020) 100415-100425

Fintová S., Kuběna I., Palán J., Mertová K., Duchek M., Hutař P., Pastorek F., Kunz L.: Influence of sandblasting and acid etching on fatigue properties of ultra-fine grained Ti grade 4 for dental implants. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 111 (2020) 104016

Polák J., Petráš R.: Cyclic plastic response and damage mechanisms in superaustenitic steel Sanicro 25 in high temperature cycling - Effect of tensile dwells and thermomechanical cycling. Theor. Appl. Fract. Mech. 108 (2020) 102641

Fintová S., Kuběna I., Luptáková N., Jarý M., Šmíd M., Stratil L., Šiška F., Svoboda J.: Development of advanced Fe-Al-O ODS alloy microstructure and properties due to heat treatment. J. Mater. Res. 35 (2020) 2789-2797

Hloch S., Srivastava M., Nag A., Müller M., Hromasová M., Svobodová J., Kruml T., Chlupová A.: Effect of pressure of pulsating water jet moving along stair trajectory on erosion depth, surface morphology and microhardness. Wear 452-453 (2020) 203278

Chlupová A., Heczko M., Obrtlík K., Dlouhý A., Kruml T.: Effect of heat-treatment on the microstructure and fatigue properties of lamellar gama-TiAl alloyed with Nb, Mo and/or C. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 786 (2020) 139427

Chlupová A., Šulák I., Svoboda J.: High Temperature Cyclic Plastic Response of New-Generation ODS Alloy. Metals 10 (2020) 804

Šulák I., Obrtlík K., Hutařová S., Juliš M., Podrábský T., Čelko L.: Low cycle fatigue and dwell-fatigue of diffusion coated superalloy Inconel 713LC at 800°C. Mater. Character. 169 (2020) 110599


Kuběna M., Eliáš M., Zajíčková L., Poduška J., Kruml T.: On the Tensile Tests of Polyurethane and Its Composites with Carbon Nanotubes. Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2019 (2019) 6598452

Šulák I., Obrtlík K., Hrbáček K.: Effect of casting conditions and heat treatment on high temperature low cycle fatigue performance of nickel superalloy Inconel 713LC. METAL 2019 Conf. Proc. 1 (2019) 1351-1356

Heczko M., Esser B., Gröger R., Feng L., Mazánová V., Wang Y., Mills M.: Structure, Morphology and Coarsening Behavior of MX (NbC) Nanoprecipitates in Fe-Ni-Cr Based Alloys. Microscopy and Microanalysis 25 (2019) 2612-2613

Šulák I., Man J., Obrtlík K.: Mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and early propagation in cyclically strained nickel superalloy. Procedia Struct. Integr. 23 (2019) 161-166

Tinoco Navarro H., Holzer J., Pikálek T., Buchta Z., Lazar J., Chlupová A., Kruml T., Hutař P.: Determination of elastic parameters of Si3N4 thin films by means of a numerical approach and bulge tests. Thin Solid Films 672 (2019) 66-74

Mazánová V., Heczko M., Škorík V., Chlupová A., Polák J., Kruml T.: Microstructure and martensitic transformation in 316L austenitic steel during multiaxial low cycle fatigue at room temperature. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 767 (2019) 138407

Gröger R., Chlup Z., Kuběnová T., Kuběna I.: Interplay of slip and twinning in niobium single crystals compressed at 77 K. J. Mater. Res. 34 (2019) 261-270

Fintová S., Drábiková J., Pastorek F., Tkacz J., Kuběna I., Trško L., Hadzima B., Minda J., Doležal P., Wasserbauer J., Ptáček P.: Improvement of electrochemical corrosion characteristics of AZ61 magnesium alloy with unconventional fluoride conversion coatings. Surf. Coat. Technol. 357 (2019) 638-650

Sofinowski K., Šmíd M., Kuběna I., Vives S., Casati N., Godet S., Van Swygenhoven H.: In situ characterization of a high work hardening Ti-6Al-4V prepared by electron beam melting. Acta Mater. 179 (2019) 224-236

Vojtek T., Pokorný P., Kuběna I., Náhlík L., Fajkoš R., Hutař P.: Quantitative dependence of oxide-induced crack closure on air humidity for railway axle steel. Int. J. Fatigue 123 (2019) 213-224

Polák J.: Initiation and Early Growth of Fatigue Cracks. TMS 2019 Supplemental Proceedings 0 (2019) 1125-1135

Husák R., Hadraba H., Chlup Z., Heczko M., Kruml T., Puchý V.: ODS EUROFER Steel Strengthened by Y-(Ce, Hf, La, Sc, and Zr) Complex Oxides. Metals 9 (2019) 1148

Polák J., Petráš R.: Cyclic plastic response and damage in superaustenitic steel in high temperature cycling with dwells and in thermomechanical cycling. Procedia Struct. Integr. 23 (2019) 275-280

Chlup Z., Fintová S., Hadraba H., Kuběna I., Vilémová M., Matějíček J.: Fatigue Behaviour and Crack Initiation in CoCrFeNiMn High-Entropy Alloy Processed by Powder Metallurgy. Metals 9 (2019) 1-12

Halasová M., Kuběna I., Roupcová P., Černý M., Strachota A., Chlup Z.: Iron precipitation in basalt fibres embedded in partially pyrolysed methylsiloxane matrix. Composites Part A 123 (2019) 286-292


Šulák I., Obrtlík K., Čelko L., Jech D., Gejdoš P.: High-Temperature Low Cycle Fatigue Resistance of Inconel 713LC Coated with Novel Thermal Barrier Coating. Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on New Trends in Fatigue and Fracture 1 (2018) 49-56

Polák J., Mazánová V., Petráš R., Heczko M.: Early damage and fatigue crack initiation at ambient and elevated temperatures in heat resistant austenitic steel. MATEC Web Conf. 165 (2018) 04008

Němcová A., Li Y., Kuběna I., Vickridge I., Ganem J., Yerokhin A., Habazaki H., Skeldon P.: Anodic film growth and silver enrichment during anodizing of an Mg- 0.6 at.% Ag alloy in fluoride-containing organic electrolytes. Electrochim. Acta 280 (2018) 300-307

Šulák I., Obrtlík K., Čelko L., Gejdoš P., Jech D.: High-Temperature Low-Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of MAR-M247 Coated with Newly Developed Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating. Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2018 (2018) 9014975

Mazánová V., Polák J.: Initiation and growth of short fatigue cracks in austenitic Sanicro 25 steel. Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct. 41 (2018) 1529-1545

Heczko M., Esser B., Smith T., Beran P., Mazánová V., McComb D., Kruml T., Polák J., Mills M.: Atomic resolution characterization of strengthening nanoparticles in a new high-temperature-capable 43Fe-25Ni-22.5Cr austenitic stainless steel. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 719 (2018) 49-60

Man J., Järvenpää A., Jaskari M., Kuběna I., Fintová S., Chlupová A., Karjalainen L., Polák J.: Cyclic deformation behaviour and stability of grain-refined 301LN austenitic stainless structure. MATEC Web Conf. 165 (2018) 06005

Mazánová V., Heczko M., Polák J.: Fatigue crack initiation and growth in 43Fe-25Ni-22.5Cr austenitic steel at a temperature of 700°C. Int. J. Fatigue 114 (2018) 11-21

Wärner H., Calmunger M., Chai G., Polák J., Petráš R., Heczko M., Kruml T., Johansson S., Moverare J.: Fracture and Damage Behavior in an Advanced Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steel During LCF, TMF and CF. Procedia Struct. Integr. 13 (2018) 843-848

Spätig P., Heczko M., Kruml T., Seifert H.: Influence of mean stress and light water reactor environment on fatigue life and dislocation microstructures of 316L austenitic steel. J. Nucl. Mater. 509 (2018) 15-28

Šiška F., Stratil L., Hadraba H., Fintová S., Kuběna I., Horník V., Husák R., Bártková D., Záležák T.: Strengthening mechanisms of different oxide particles in 9Cr ODS steel at high temperatures. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 732 (2018) 112-119

Šulák I., Obrtlík K., Čelko L., Chráska T., Jech D., Gejdoš P.: Low cycle fatigue performance of Ni-based superalloy coated with complex thermal barrier coating. Mater. Character. 139 (2018) 347-354

Chlup Z., Bača L., Hadraba H., Kuběna I., Roupcová P., Kováčová Z.: Low-temperature consolidation of high-strength TiB2 ceramic composites via grain-boundary engineering using Ni-W alloy. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 738 (2018) 194-202

Petráš R., Polák J.: Damage mechanism in austenitic steel during high temperature cyclic loading with dwells. Int. J. Fatigue 113 (2018) 335-344

Gröger R., Chlup Z., Kuběna I., Kruml T.: Slip activity in molybdenum single crystals compressed at 77 K. Philos. Mag. 98 (2018) 2749-2768

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