Institute of Physics of Materials AS CR, v. v. i. > Groups > Low Cycle Fatigue Group

Low Cycle Fatigue Group

Headprof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
E-mail [javascript protected email address]
Phone number+420 532 290 379

Premature failure of components and structures designed on the basis of monotonic and traditional high cycle life curves has focused the attention of design engineers and scientists to the study of low cycle fatigue of materials. Low cycle fatigue fractures are connected with the infrequent working cycles of equipment or instruments which often result from start-up and shut down operations or interruptions of their function. Important subjects represent also high temperature low cycle fatigue, thermal and thermomechanical fatigue and multiaxial elastoplastic fatigue.

The research of low cycle fatigue started in IPM under the leadership of the deceased Prof. Mirko Klesnil in the sixties when two electrohydraulic testing machines were designed and assembled in the IPM using the components produced by INOVA company. Later two elecrohydraulic computer controlled machines were purchased (see experimental facilities).

The present activities of the group concentrate to the systematic study of the fatigue behaviour of the structural and advanced materials subjected to cyclic elastoplastic loading, mostly under push-pull conditions.

The main subjects pursued:

  • cyclic plastic straining the mechanisms, sources of the cyclic stress and relation to the internal structure. Analysis of the hysteresis loop using statistical theory in terms of the internal and effective stress, the relation of the macroscopic response to the internal dislocation structure.
  • fatigue damage mechanisms - the mechanisms of cyclic slip localisation, fatigue crack nucleation
  • interaction of low cycle fatigue with creep at elevated temperatures, structural changes and damage evolution in high temperature symmetric and asymmetric loading; nickel based superalloys
  • fatigue of composite materials - damage evolution, cracking and fatigue fracture of laminate composites (GLARE, ARALL)
  • effect of the coatings on the cyclic plasticity and fatigue life of advanced materials - effect of nitride and carbon layers and of the other coating procedures on the individual stages of fatigue process and on the fatigue life.
  • effect of depressed and elevated temperatures on the early fatigue damage - study of the surface relief evolution using high resolution techniques (AFM, FESEM, EBSD, FIB) in austenitic, ferritic and austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steels
  • short crack growth kinetics in advanced steels - duplex, Eurofer, effect of mean stress
  • study of fatigue damage in TiAl intermetallics

The most important results in the last five years:

  • quantitative description of short crack growth regime and its use for the fatigue life prediction
  • experimental documentation of fatigue damage evolution in plastic strain amplitude controlled one-step and two-step loading
  • separation of the cyclic stress into internal and effective component using loop shape analysis
  • measurement of the effective stress and the distribution of the internal critical stresses in stainless austenitic, ferritic and duplex steels
  • application of the atomic force microscopy (AFM), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) to the study of surface relief evolution and fatigue crack nucleation
  • quantitative data on the extrusion and intrusion formation in stainless steel at ambient, depressed and elevated temperatures
  • theoretical description of the temperature dependence of the extrusion growth in fatigued single and polycrystals


NamePhone numbersRoomsE-mail
Mgr. Milan Heczko, Ph.D. +420 532 290 343116a [javascript protected email address]
Ing. Alice Chlupová, Ph.D. +420 532 290 344116b [javascript protected email address]
Ing. Ivo Kuběna, Ph.D. +420 532 290 417316 [javascript protected email address]
Ing. Jiří Man, Ph.D. +420 532 290 363110 [javascript protected email address]
doc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc. +420 532 290 415208 [javascript protected email address]
prof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c. +420 532 290 366111 [javascript protected email address]
Ing. Ivo Šulák, Ph.D. +420 532 290 343116a [javascript protected email address]


NamePhone numbersRoomsE-mail
Mgr. Roman Chrastil, DiS. +420 532 290 341125 [javascript protected email address]
Robert Mádle +420 532 290 352105 [javascript protected email address]
Ing. Jiří Tobiáš +420 532 290 352105 [javascript protected email address]
Ing. Jan Vysloužil, CSc. +420 532 290 341125 [javascript protected email address]

Phd students

NamePhone numbersRoomsE-mail
Ing. Tomáš Babinský +420 532 290 345116 [javascript protected email address]
Ing. Ladislav Poczklán +420 532 290 345116 [javascript protected email address]
Ing. Jakub Poloprudský +420 532 290 345116 [javascript protected email address]

Project numberNameInvestigator
CK02000025 Advanced welded structurus for enhanced operational safety in aviationprof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
958192, H2020-NMBP-ST-IND-2020-singlestage, LC-SPIRE-08-2020 Tailoring ODS materials processing routes for additive manufacturing of high temperature devices for aggressive environments (topAM)prof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
19-00408S Material integrity and structure at the early stages during pulsating liquid jet interactionprof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.


Project numberNameInvestigator
18-03615S Description of short fatigue crack growth in large scale yielding conditionsprof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
TH02020482 Compressor wheel’s performance increase in auxiliary power units for aerospace applicationdoc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
15-08826S Damage mechanisms in multiaxial cyclic loadingprof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
15-20991S Plasma deposition, microstructural and thermo-mechanical stability of environmental barrier coatingsdoc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
13-28685P Identification of fatigue damage mechanisms in modern steels under development for fusion and nuclear reactorsIng. Ivo Kuběna, Ph.D.
13-23652S Materials for high temperature applications – hardening and damaging mechanismsprof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c.
13-32665S Fatigue damage mechanisms in ultrafine grained stainless steelsIng. Jiří Man, Ph.D.
P204/11/1453 Analysis of cyclic stress components in advanced high-temperature resistant structural materialsprof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c.
P107/11/2065 Protective diffusion coatings on cast nickel-based superalloys for high temperature applicationdoc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
P107/11/0704 Optimization of structure and properties of advanced high-temperature cast materials alloyed with carbon by complex heat treatmentprof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
P108/10/2371 Localization and irreversibility of cyclic slip in polycrystalsIng. Jiří Man, Ph.D.
106/09/1954 Role of oxide dispersion in fatigue behaviour of ODS type steelsprof. Mgr. Tomáš Kruml, CSc.
106/08/1631 Mechanism of cyclic deformation and fatigue life of advanced multiphase materials for high-temperature applicationsIng. Martin Petrenec, Ph.D.
106/07/1507 Low cycle fatigue-creep interaction in advanced high temperature structural materialsdoc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
101/07/1500 Novel principles for life prediction in variable loading of componentsprof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c.
106/06/1096 Role of lattice defects in early stadia of fatigue damage of structural materialsIng. Jiří Man, Ph.D.
106/05/P521 Dislocation structure in cast superalloys INCONEL cyclicaly loaded at high temperaturesIng. Martin Petrenec, Ph.D.
AVOZ 2041904-I038 Fatigue behaviour of nanostructural quasicrystalline materials based on AlIng. Alice Chlupová, Ph.D.
106/03/1265 Influence of selected factors on fatigue properties of ADIdoc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
106/02/D147 Effect of cyclic loading with variable stress amplitude on fatigue behaviour of fibre-metal laminatesIng. Alice Chlupová, Ph.D.
106/02/0584 Fatigue life and residual fatigue life assessment based on the kinetics of short crack growthprof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c.
IAA2041201 Mechanisms of fatigue damage in natural compositesprof. RNDr. Jaroslav Polák, DrSc., dr. h. c.
C2041104 Properties and behaviour of hybrid laminates dural-C/epoxy under cyclic loadingIng. Alice Chlupová, Ph.D.
106/01/0376 Effect of cycle asymmetry on short crack growth and fatigue life in advanced structural materialsdoc. RNDr. Karel Obrtlík, CSc.
106/00/D055 Effect of asymmetrical cyclic loading on early damage stadia of structural materialsIng. Jiří Man, Ph.D.


MTS Acumen 12 - Electrodynamic testing system

Contact person: Ing. Ivo Šulák, Ph.D.
The MTS Acumen 12 electrodynamic testing system allows static and dynamic loading up to ± 12 kN for cyclic, tensile, bending and compression tests.

MTS 809 axial – torsional test system

Contact person: Ing. Ivo Šulák, Ph.D.
Servohydraulic MTS 809 axial – torsional test system allowing us to perform isothermal fatigue testing with independent bi-axial loading at temperatures from 24°C up to 1400°C.

MTS 810 servo-hydraulic testing machine for fatigue loading at temperature range from -196°C up to 350°C

Contact person: Ing. Ivo Šulák, Ph.D.
Testing system allowing us to perform isothermal fatigue loading at temperature 24°C or when equipped with cryostat at low temperature from -196°C or equipped with environmental chamber in temperature range from -70°C up to 350°C.

MTS 810 servo-hydraulic testing machine for fatigue loading at temperature from 24°C up to 1000°C

Contact person: Ing. Ivo Šulák, Ph.D.
Testing system allowing us to perform isothermal fatigue loading at temperatures from 24°C up to 1000°C.

MTS 880 servo-hydraulic testing machine for thermo-mechanical fatigue

Contact person: Ing. Ivo Šulák, Ph.D.
MTS 880 servo-hydraulic testing system allowing us to perform an independent mechanical and thermal cyclic loading in the temperature range from 24°C to 1200°C.

Feritscope Fischer FMP 30

Contact person: Ing. Jiří Man, Ph.D.
Feritscope Fischer FMP 30 is equipment for measurement of the ferrite Content in Steels.

Long focal microscopes

Contact person:
Questar and Navitar are long focal microscopes for in-situ observation of specimen surface during loading.


Šmíd M., Kuběna I., Jambor M., Fintová S.: Effect of solution annealing on low cycle fatigue of 304L stainless steel. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 824 (2021) 141807

Bertolla L., Šulák I., Buršík J., Dlouhý I., Smilek J., Mácová P., Holas J.: Exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets in low-modulus concentrated alkali silicate pastes. Mater. Lett. 292 (2021) 129551

Poloprudský J., Chlupová A., Šulák I., Kruml T., Hloch S.: Surface and Subsurface Analysis of Stainless Steel and Titanium Alloys Exposed to Ultrasonic Pulsating Water Jet. Materials 14 (2021) 5212

Švábenská E., Chlupová A., Foldyna J., Schneeweiss O.: Evolution of Microstructure of Silicon Steel After Pulsating Water Jet Treatment. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering Advances (2021) 219-228

Tinoco Navarro H., Hutař P., Kruml T., Holzer J.: Modeling of elastoplastic behavior of freestanding square thin films under bulge testing. Acta Mechanica 232 (2021) 2715-2731

Chlupová A., Šulák I., Kunčická L., Kocich R., Svoboda J.: Microstructural aspects of new grade ODS alloy consolidated by rotary swaging. Mater. Character. 181 (2021) 111477

Pirzada T., Liu D., Ell J., Barnard H., Šulák I., Galano M., Marrow T., Ritchie R.: In situ observation of the deformation and fracture of an alumina-alumina ceramic-matrix composite at elevated temperature using x-ray computed tomography. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 41 (2021) 4217-4230

Trávníček L., Kuběna I., Mazánová V., Vojtek T., Polák J., Hutař P., Šmíd M.: Advantageous Description of Short Fatigue Crack Growth Rates in Austenitic Stainless Steels with Distinct Properties. Metals 11 (2021) 475

Fintová S., Kuběna I., Jarý M., Luptáková N., Stratil L., Šiška F., Svoboda J.: Creep properties of heat-treated Fe-Al-O ODS alloy. Kovové materiály 59 (2021) 39-50

Říha Z., Zeleňák M., Kruml T., Poloprudský J.: Comparison of the disintegration abilities of modulated and continuous water jets. Wear 478-479 (2021) 203891

Tinoco Navarro H., Holzer J., Pikálek T., Sobota J., Fořt T., Matějka M., Kruml T., Hutař P.: Determination of the yield stress in Al thin film by applying bulge test. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1777 (2021) 012030

Heczko M., George E., Mazánová V., Ghazisaeidi M., Slone C., Polák J., Shih M., Mills M.: Role of deformation twinning in fatigue of CrCoNi medium-entropy alloy at room temperature. Scr. Mater. 202 (2021) 113985

Babinský T., Kuběna I., Šulák I., Kruml T., Tobiáš J., Polák J.: Surface relief evolution and fatigue crack initiation in René 41 superalloy cycled at room temperature. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 819 (2021) 141520

Čuha D., Nag A., Chlupová A., Hloch S.: Erosion of Titanium and Aluminium Alloys Using Pulsating Water Jet: Effect of Standoff Distance. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering (2021) 56-66

Holzer J., Chlup Z., Kruml T., Gröger R.: Plastic deformation of magnetically isotropic Cr single crystals compressed at 77 K. Int. J. Plast. 138 (2021) 102938

Vinogradov A., Kruml T., Heczko M., Mazánová V., Linderov M.: Kinetics of cyclically-induced mechanical twinning in gamma-TiAl unveiled by a combination of acoustic emission, neutron diffraction and electron microscopy. Acta Mater. 212 (2021) 116921

Poloprudský J., Chlupová A., Kruml T., Hloch S., Hlaváček P., Foldyna J.: Effect of Standoff Distance on the Erosion of Various Materials. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering Advances (2021) 164-171

Poloprudský J., Chlupová A., Kruml T., Hloch S.: Identification of Local Microplasticity on Ti6Al4V After Impingement of Periodically Acting Water Clusters. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering Advances (2021) 63-74

Fintová S., Kuběna I., Chlupová A., Jambor M., Šulák I., Chlup Z., Polák J.: Frequency-dependent fatigue damage in polycrystalline copper analyzed by FIB tomography. Acta Mater. 211 (2021) 116859


Abdel-Mohnsen A., Abdel-Rahman R., Kuběna I., Kobera L., Spotz Z., Zboncak M., Prikryl R., Brus J., Jančar J.: Chitosan-glucan complex hollow fibers reinforced collagen wound dressing embedded with aloe vera. Part I: Preparation and characterization. Carbohydrate Polymers 230 (2020) 115708

Hloch S., Srivastava M., Nag A., Müller M., Hromasová M., Svobodová J., Kruml T., Chlupová A.: Effect of pressure of pulsating water jet moving along stair trajectory on erosion depth, surface morphology and microhardness. Wear 452-453 (2020) 203278

Šulák I., Obrtlík K., Hutařová S., Juliš M., Podrábský T., Čelko L.: Low cycle fatigue and dwell-fatigue of diffusion coated superalloy Inconel 713LC at 800°C. Mater. Character. 169 (2020) 110599

Abdel-Mohnsen A., Frankova J., Abdel-Rahman R., Salem A., Sahffie N., Kuběna I., Jančar J.: Chitosan-glucan complex hollow fibers reinforced collagen wound dressing embedded with aloe vera. II. Multifunctional properties to promote cutaneous wound healing. Int. J. Pharmaceut. 582 (2020) 119349

Chlupová A., Heczko M., Obrtlík K., Dlouhý A., Kruml T.: Effect of heat-treatment on the microstructure and fatigue properties of lamellar gama-TiAl alloyed with Nb, Mo and/or C. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 786 (2020) 139427

Polatidis E., Šmíd M., Kuběna I., Hsu W., Laplanche G., Van Swygenhoven H.: Deformation mechanisms in a superelastic NiTi alloy: An in-situ high resolution digital image correlation study. Mater. & Design 191 (2020) 108622

Chlupová A., Šulák I., Svoboda J.: High Temperature Cyclic Plastic Response of New-Generation ODS Alloy. Metals 10 (2020) 804

Tinoco Navarro H., Hutař P., Merle B., Göken M., Kruml T.: Fracture Toughness Evaluation of a Cracked Au Thin Film by Applying a Finite Element Analysis and Bulge Test. Key Eng. Mater. 827 (2020) 196-202

Mazánová V., Heczko M., Slone C., Kuběna I., Tobiáš J., George E., Kruml T., Polák J., Mills M.: SEM & STEM Multi-scale Characterization of Fatigue Damage in CrCoNi Medium-entropy Alloy with Fully Recrystallized Microstructure. Microscopy and Microanalysis 26 (Supp (2020) 2224

Chlupová A., Poczklán L., Man J., Mazánová V., Heczko M., Kruml T.: Character of Fatigue Damage under Axial, Torsional and Biaxial Loading of 316L Stainless Steel. Defect Diffus. Forum 405 (2020) 264-270

Fintová S., Kuběna I., Trško L., Horník V., Kunz L.: Fatigue behavior of AW7075 aluminum alloy in ultra-high cycle fatigue region. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 774 (2020) 138922

Que Z., Heczko M., Kuběna I., Seifert H., Spätig P.: Microstructural characterization of the synergic effects of dynamic strain ageing and hydrogen on fracture behaviour of low-alloy RPV steels in hightemperature water environments. Mater. Character. 165 (2020) 110405

Šulák I., Obrtlík K.: AFM, SEM AND TEM study of damage mechanisms in cyclically strained mar-M247 at room temperature and high temperatures. Theor. Appl. Fract. Mech. 108 (2020) 102606

Fintová S., Kuběna I., Luptáková N., Jarý M., Šmíd M., Stratil L., Šiška F., Svoboda J.: Development of advanced Fe-Al-O ODS alloy microstructure and properties due to heat treatment. J. Mater. Res. 35 (2020) 2789-2797

Fintová S., Kuběna I., Palán J., Mertová K., Duchek M., Hutař P., Pastorek F., Kunz L.: Influence of sandblasting and acid etching on fatigue properties of ultra-fine grained Ti grade 4 for dental implants. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 111 (2020) 104016

Polák J.: Production, annihilation and migration of point defects in cyclic straining. Materialia 14 (2020) 100938

Petráš R., Šulák I., Polák J.: The effect of dwell on thermomechanical fatigue in superaustenitic steel Sanicro 25. Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct. 2020 (2020) 1-16

Švábenská E., Pizúrová N., Roupcová P., Chlupová A., Brajer J., Foldyna J., Schneeweiss O.: Effect of shock wave on microstructure of silicon steel. Surfaces and Interfaces 20 (2020) 100415-100425

Polák J., Petráš R.: Cyclic plastic response and damage mechanisms in superaustenitic steel Sanicro 25 in high temperature cycling - Effect of tensile dwells and thermomechanical cycling. Theor. Appl. Fract. Mech. 108 (2020) 102641

Drábiková J., Fintová S., Ptáček P., Kuběna I., Březina M., Wasserbauer J., Doležal P., Pastorek F.: Structure and growth kinetic of unconventional fluoride conversion coating prepared on wrought AZ61 magnesium alloy. Surf. Coat. Technol. 399 (2020) 126101


Polák J.: Initiation and Early Growth of Fatigue Cracks. TMS 2019 Supplemental Proceedings (2019) 1125-1135

Tinoco Navarro H., Holzer J., Pikálek T., Buchta Z., Lazar J., Chlupová A., Kruml T., Hutař P.: Determination of elastic parameters of Si3N4 thin films by means of a numerical approach and bulge tests. Thin Solid Films 672 (2019) 66-74

Husák R., Hadraba H., Chlup Z., Heczko M., Kruml T., Puchý V.: ODS EUROFER Steel Strengthened by Y-(Ce, Hf, La, Sc, and Zr) Complex Oxides. Metals 9 (2019) 1148

Šulák I., Obrtlík K., Hrbáček K.: Effect of casting conditions and heat treatment on high temperature low cycle fatigue performance of nickel superalloy Inconel 713LC. METAL 2019 Conf. Proc. (2019) 1351-1356

Gröger R., Chlup Z., Sojková T., Kuběna I.: Interplay of slip and twinning in niobium single crystals compressed at 77 K. J. Mater. Res. 34 (2019) 261-270

Fintová S., Drábiková J., Pastorek F., Tkacz J., Kuběna I., Trško L., Hadzima B., Minda J., Doležal P., Wasserbauer J., Ptáček P.: Improvement of electrochemical corrosion characteristics of AZ61 magnesium alloy with unconventional fluoride conversion coatings. Surf. Coat. Technol. 357 (2019) 638-650

Chlup Z., Fintová S., Hadraba H., Kuběna I., Vilémová M., Matějíček J.: Fatigue Behaviour and Crack Initiation in CoCrFeNiMn High-Entropy Alloy Processed by Powder Metallurgy. Metals 9 (2019) 1-12

Vojtek T., Pokorný P., Kuběna I., Náhlík L., Fajkoš R., Hutař P.: Quantitative dependence of oxide-induced crack closure on air humidity for railway axle steel. Int. J. Fatigue 123 (2019) 213-224

Kuběna M., Eliáš M., Zajíčková L., Poduška J., Kruml T.: On the Tensile Tests of Polyurethane and Its Composites with Carbon Nanotubes. Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2019 (2019) 6598452

Babinský T., Polák J.: Effective and internal stresses in 713LC and Rene 41 superalloys using analysis of the hysteresis loop shape. Procedia Struct. Integr. 23 (2019) 523-528

Halasová M., Kuběna I., Roupcová P., Černý M., Strachota A., Chlup Z.: Iron precipitation in basalt fibres embedded in partially pyrolysed methylsiloxane matrix. Composites Part A 123 (2019) 286-292

Šulák I., Man J., Obrtlík K.: Mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and early propagation in cyclically strained nickel superalloy. Procedia Struct. Integr. 23 (2019) 161-166

Mazánová V., Heczko M., Škorík V., Chlupová A., Polák J., Kruml T.: Microstructure and martensitic transformation in 316L austenitic steel during multiaxial low cycle fatigue at room temperature. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 767 (2019) 138407

Sofinowski K., Šmíd M., Kuběna I., Vives S., Casati N., Godet S., Van Swygenhoven H.: In situ characterization of a high work hardening Ti-6Al-4V prepared by electron beam melting. Acta Mater. 179 (2019) 224-236

Polák J., Petráš R.: Cyclic plastic response and damage in superaustenitic steel in high temperature cycling with dwells and in thermomechanical cycling. Procedia Struct. Integr. 23 (2019) 275-280

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